Manila ( mə-NIL-ə, Spanish: [maˈnila]; Filipino: Maynila, pronounced [majˈnilaʔ]), known officially as the City of Manila (Filipino: Lungsod ng Maynila, [luŋˈsod nɐŋ majˈnilaʔ]), is the capital of the Philippines, and its second-most populous city. It is highly urbanized and as of 2019 was the world's most densely populated city proper. Manila is considered to be a global city and rated as an Alpha – City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC). It was the first chartered city in the country, designated as such by the Philippine Commission Act 183 of July 31, 1901. It became autonomous with the passage of Republic Act No. 409, "The Revised Charter of the City of Manila", on June 18, 1949. Manila is considered to be part of the world's original set of global cities because its commercial networks were the first to extend across the Pacific Ocean and connect Asia with the Spanish Americas through the galleon trade; when this was accomplished, it marked the first time in world history that an uninterrupted chain of trade routes circling the planet had been established. It is among the most populous and fastest growing cities in Southeast Asia.Some regard modern Manila as having been founded on June 24, 1571, when the Spanish-built walled fortification of Intramuros was constructed by Spanish conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi on the ruins of an older settlement of a similar name from which the Spanish and English name Manila derives. However, that Tagalog-fortified polity called Maynilà had already existed on the site, dating as far back as 1258. Spanish construction began after the defeat of the polity's last indigenous Rajah, Sulayman III, in the Battle of Bangkusay. Manila was used as the capital of the captaincy general of the Spanish East Indies (which included the Marianas, Guam and other islands) and was controlled and administered by Mexico City in the Viceroyalty of New Spain for the Spanish crown. Today, it is home to many historic sites. In modern times, the term "Manila" is commonly used to refer to the whole metropolitan area, the greater metropolitan area, or the city proper. The officially defined metropolitan area, called Metro Manila, the "capital region" of the Philippines, includes the much larger Quezon City and the Makati Central Business District. It is the most populous region in the country, one of the most populous urban areas in the world, and is one of the wealthiest regions in Southeast Asia. The city proper was home to 1,846,513 people in 2020, and is the historic core of a built-up area that extends well beyond its administrative limits. With 71,263 people per square kilometer, Manila is the most densely populated city proper in the world. Manila is located on the eastern shore of Manila Bay, on the island of Luzon. The Pasig River flows through the middle of the city, dividing it into the north and south sections. The city comprises 16 administrative districts and is divided into six political districts for the purposes of its representation in the Congress of the Philippines and the election of city council members. In 2018, the Globalization and World Cities Research Network listed Manila as an "Alpha-" global city and ranked it seventh in economic performance globally and second regionally, while the Global Financial Centres Index ranks Manila 79th in the world.